The base composite ingredient to the manufacture of any glass product is, of course sand. The other two critical ingredients being Sodium Carbonate and Calcium Carbonate. These ingredients alter the base molecular structure of the sand and lowers the melting point. This does not mean that a temperature of between 1,427 and 1,538 degrees Celsius can be seen as low! Not only does it take extreme temperatures to melt sand, it also takes an average period of three days.
During the melting process it is critical to minimize the amount of air pockets that can form. The first step is achieved by raking the sand mixture as it starts to melt. Then during a 10-hour period the melted glass is kept at a super-heated temperature to allow gas to bubble up and out of the mixture. These bubbles may seem trivial, but can cause severe problems later.
The next step in the process of achieving flat glass, without bubbles, has been in use since 1959 and was developed by Pilkington. The requirement? Creating a large, stable surface on which the glass can float in order to cool and solidify, flat and bubble free. The answer is ingots of melted tin. Glass and tin do not mix and the lighter glass will float on top of the melted tin, cooling into a perfectly solidified flat sheet…Read Moreore
Flat glass, Griffith flaws, thermal breaks and more…
Heat flows through a window in three ways: conduction, convection and radiation. When these basic mechanisms of heat transfer are applied to the performance of windows, they interact in complex ways.
Can be described as transfer between two surfaces in direct contact with each other.
Through movement between a solid surface and a gas heat is transferred through circulation.
Linked to heat emission, describing the capability of heat transfer of a surface. A lower emission will cause weaker heat transfer. Thus the higher the emission, the more heat will be radiated…Read More
Why Double Glazed Windows can help save the world
To arrive at a realistic estimate of energy and carbon-emission savings that may be achieved as a result of the use of energy-efficient windows and ceiling insulation in South Africa's buildings, it is necessary to distinguish building energy consumption from other forms of consumption.
In 2000, the final end-user energy consumption was 2193 PJ. Of this, 17% (373 PJ) was in the residential sector, while 4% (88 PJ) was consumed in the commercial building sector. Gas has a relatively small share of the energy market: 2% of the total versus 26% for electricity.
Of all residential energy consumption in South Africa's households, it is assumed that two-thirds is from a combination of electricity and gas, versus one-third from fuelwood. After subtracting the relatively small fraction due to gas of various types it can now be estimated that approximately 17% of South Africa's electricity is used in homes for heating, cooling, lighting, cooking, appliances and water heating…Read More
Understanding Energy Efficient Glass
Now meeting the Glass and Aluminium requirements of companies and individuals’ country wide!
Glass Rite is proud to announce the launch of a new branch for the prestigious company in the Cape Province.
Situated in Atlas Gardens, Durbanville the new branch opened its doors on the 1st of February 2017 under the Senior Management of Dirk Joubert.
The new branch will offer the same outstanding services as the Centurion based head office.